DEMAND RESPONSE: WHAT DOES IT DELIVER?
Moderator: Mirjam Harmelink, Harmelink Consulting
The first paper displays the potential benefits from the roll-out of smart meters by discussing the measurement and verification of three system-wide smart meter enabled programs—Time of Use (TOU) pricing in the province of Ontario (Canada), enhanced feedback and other smart meter-enabled customer outreach, and a Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) program in a mid-sized US utility. The researches discuss ways to establish control groups for evaluations in cases where smart meters are roll out for an entire residential customer population and thus the benefits of smart metering cannot be measured using a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Discussed ways for creating control groups are using the phased nature of the smart meter rollout, using neighboring jurisdictions, and creating sub-system pilot groups. The researches discuss how these control groups can be adequately selected and even optimally chosen if built into the smart meter rollout design.
The second paper displays the results of a meta-evaluation of major impact evaluations from US utilities including peak time rebate (PTR) programs and dynamic pricing plans such as critical peak pricing (CPP) over the decade 2005 through 2014. Interest in the results of these programs has grown along with expansion of smart metering installations and the federal “smart grid” funding following the financial crisis of 2007-08. The paper shows thatthere is considerable variability in estimated impacts, both across programs and across events within programs in cases where event-specific results are reported. Reported percentage load reductions is on average approximately 6.5 percent, ranging from about 2 percent to 11 percent
The third paper analysis the potential contribution of DR in cutting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power plants in the US. The researchers analyzed two direct emission reduction pathways (DR reduces peak load and provides ancillary services) and two indirect emission reduction pathways (DR contributes to increased levels of renewable penetration, DR impacts the economics of power plants such that the system fuel mix changes). Their results show that DR can directly reduce CO2 emissions by more than one percent through peakload reductions and the provision of ancillary 2016 International Energy Policies & Programmes Evaluation Conference, Amsterdam services, and that it can indirectly reduce CO2emissions by more than one percent through accelerating changes in the fuel mix and increasing renewables penetration.
The fourth paper describes methods and findings from an assessment of the potential for fastresponding Demand-Side Resources (DSRs) to provide operational flexibility to the grid. The study, conducted for the U.S. utility with the highest penetration of renewable energy (Hawaiian Electric), assessed a range of grid-services that can be provided by DSRs, from almost instantaneous inertial/frequency response to regulation, spinning, and non-spinning reserves to traditional energy and capacity products. This evolution in assessment of DSR potential parallels a European-wide recognition of the increasing impact of renewables on grid stability and of the need to better understand the role that DSRs can play in maintaining reliability.
Capturing Smart Meter Enabled Benefits in System-Wide Rollouts [paper]
Dr. Neil Lessem, The Brattle Group, Sydney, NSW
Dr. Ahmad Faruqui, The Brattle Group, San Francisco, CA
Dr. Sanem Sergici, The Brattle Group, Boston, MA
What Have We Learned from Evaluations of Residential Peak Time Rebate Programs in the U.S. over the Past Decade? [paper] [presentation]
Dr. Steven D. Braithwait, Christensen Associates Energy Consulting, Madison, WI
Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Demand Response: Impacts in Three U.S. Markets [paper] [presentation]
Frank Stern, Navigant Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO
Maggie Shober, Navigant Consulting, Inc., Washington, D.C.
Matt Tanner, Navigant Consulting, Inc., Washington, D.C.
Dan Violette, Navigant Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO
Resource Flexibility to Support Renewables Growth and Grid Stability: The Potential for Demand-Side Resources [paper]
Stuart Schare, Navigant Consulting, Inc., Boulder, CO, USA
Debyani Ghosh, James Milford, and Greg Wikler, Navigant Consulting, Inc.